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The graph to the right shows the part of the INTCAL13 calibration curve from 1000 BP to 1400 BP, a range in which there are significant departures from a linear relationship between radiocarbon age and calendar age.In places where the calibration curve is steep, and does not change direction, as in example t in blue on the graph to the right, the resulting calendar year range is quite narrow.The alternative is to take the original normal distribution of radiocarbon age ranges and use it to generate a histogram showing the relative probabilities for calendar ages.This has to be done by numerical methods rather than by a formula because the calibration curve is not describable as a formula.Dendrochronology or the study of tree rings led to the first such sequence: tree rings from individual pieces of wood show characteristic sequences of rings that vary in thickness because of environmental factors such as the amount of rainfall in a given year.These factors affect all trees in an area, so examining tree-ring sequences from old wood allows the identification of overlapping sequences.However, this method does not make use of the assumption that the original radiocarbon age range is a normally distributed variable: not all dates in the radiocarbon age range are equally likely, and so not all dates in the resulting calendar year age are equally likely.

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Suess said he drew the line showing the wiggles by "cosmic schwung" – freehand, in other words.The output is along the bottom axis; it is a trimodal graph, with peaks at around 710 AD, 740 AD, and 760 AD.Again, the ranges within the 1σ confidence range are in dark grey, and the ranges within the 2σ confidence range are in light grey.Programs to perform these calculations include Ox Cal and CALIB.These can be accessed online; they allow the user to enter a date range at one standard deviation confidence for the radiocarbon ages, select a calibration curve, and produce probabilistic output both as tabular data and in graphical form.

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