Critically elucidating the role of selenium all dating in swiz
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Selenium (Se) deficiency has been known for many years to be associated with disease, impaired growth and a variety of other metabolic disorders in mammals. Nonsense-mediated decay of m RNA for the selenoprotein phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase is detectable in cultured cells but masked or inhibited in rat tissues. M.v., Méplan C., Schomburg L., Evelo C., Coort S., Gaj S., Keijer J., Hesketh J., Brigelius-Flohé R.
GPx4, on the other hand, was shown to be essential for mouse development as GPx4 deficient mice die at E7.5 . implicate a role of selenoproteins in human diseases.
Knockout of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1)  and thioredoxin reductase 3 (TR3)  have also been shown to be embryonic lethal. For example, Kashin-Beck disease, which is found in various regions of China and has been described in North Korea and Siberia, is an osteoarticular disease involving cartilage and is characterized by stunted growth, skeletal deformities and arthropathy of multiple joints . E., Sengupta A., Schweizer U., Shrimali R., Rao M., Zhong N., Wang S., Feigenbaum L., Lee B.
The synthesis of selenoproteins is dependent on Sec t RNA for insertion of Sec, the 21 amino acid in the genetic code, into protein. Methylation of the ribosyl moiety at position 34 of selenocysteine t RNA[Ser]Sec is governed by both primary and tertiary structure.
Se is incorporated into protein by way of the Se-containing amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Deletion of the selenocysteine t RNA gene in macrophages and liver results in compensatory gene induction of cytoprotective enzymes by Nrf2.