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Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy.Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.Up to 30,000 Bulgarians were killed as Ottoman authorities put down the rebellion.The massacres prompted the Great Powers to take action.The population of seven million lives mainly in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces. Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; it is a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and has taken a seat on the UN Security Council three times.Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and mostly relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries.
The Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions.
Their horde was a remnant of Old Great Bulgaria, an extinct tribal confederacy situated north of the Black Sea in what is now Ukraine.
With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.
One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC.