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The highly sophisticated models and terminologies developed for the analysis of the novel, plays, films, and poetry cannot be transferred to the analysis of non-fictional storytelling without some serious modification. Although the proposals for such a renewal—the so-called new, hyphenated or postclassical narratologies—are manifold and differ in a number of respects, most of them have at least some features in common.2 In the present context, it will do to dwell on just one of these features, namely, the expansionist claim that narratology is to be modeled as a theory encompassing both the analysis and interpretation of literary narratives. ‘Narrative’, ‘narrativity’ and ‘storytelling’ have been travelling concepts for quite some time now, and in an age of intense interdisciplinary interest in narratives and storytelling, narrative theory would stand to gain a lot if narratologists started to do some travelling as well. Surveying Contextualist and Cultural Narratologies 67 count of the contexts as well as the cultural functions of narratives as crucial ways of world-making.

Here, narratology is still in its infancy, despite the ground-breaking work by Monika Fludernik, David Herman and other proponents of cognitive and linguistic approaches to narrative and narratology. This is the central demand of the large subclass of new approaches to narrative theory that have been, for some years now, categorized as ‘contextual narratologies’.3 The claim can be traced back to Susan S. Only then will they be in a position to take ac- 15 For an excellent overview, see Salmon (2007), who summarizes the main developments, and the works of Stephen Denning, the ‘guru’ of the storytelling approach in management.

TOM KINDT Narratological Expansionism and Its Discontents....................... As Bruno Zerweck (2001) has shown, the development of narrative forms like unreliable narration can fruitfully be interpreted as a reflection of changing cultural discourses.

BO PETTERSSON Narratology and Hermeneutics: Forging the Missing Link......... Key narratological concepts like focalization, unreliable narration, and narrative perspective have proved very fine descriptive tools, but they need to be applied before they can yield the insights considered vital for literary and cultural history.

Interdisciplinary Narrative Research as a Horizontal Transfer between ‘Generic’ Theories In his survey article, “Recent Concepts of Narrative and the Narratives of Narrative Theory”, Brian Richardson (2000: 168) observes not only that “narrative is everywhere”, but also that it “seems to be a kind of vortex around which other discourses orbit in ever closer proximity” (ibid.: 169). Nevertheless, the various approaches that have come to be known as (inter)cultural, historical, and postcolonial narratologies still have the bulk of their work ahead of them. “Close Reading Today: From Narratology to Cultural Analysis”.

There is no denying that narrative has been put on the agenda by an increasing number of scholars in a wide range of disciplines: psychologists are not only developing their own methodology to deal with narrative interviews (Riessman 1993) but have recently also proposed a dedicated ‘psychonarratology’ (Bortolussi/Dixon 2003); artificial intelligence research has a strong interest in storytelling (e. Bringsjord/Ferrucci 2000); there is a branch of business studies which deals with stories as means of branding and marketing (e. Zaltman 2003); ludologists have long recognized the narrative nature of games (e. Murray 1997); anthropologists explore everyday storytelling (Ochs/Capps 2001); theologists seek to ‘reclaim narrative’ (Doak 2004), and in performance studies there is talk of a “storytelling revival” (Wilson 2006: x) on British, Irish and, especially, American stages. TOM KINDT (Göttingen) Narratological Expansionism and Its Discontents* “Here comes the future and you can’t run from it If you got a blacklist I want to be on it.” (Billy Bragg: Waiting for the Great Leap Forward) In the course of the last ten years, narratology has gained a popularity in the humanities that it never enjoyed before, not even in the heyday of structuralism. I should like to conclude by emphasizing once again that both the analytical toolbox provided by structuralist narratology and the new postclassical narratologies can be of great practical value to literary criticism, genre theory and cultural history.

Even though ‘postclassical’ narratologists get excited when thinking of the manifold underlying implications of identity formation through life stories or corporate narratives, one has to accept that such phenomena transcend not merely disciplinary or institutional boundaries but also the competencies and research interests of ‘narrative’ sociologists or marketing experts. The second part will discuss the endeavor to reconceptualize narratology as a basic discipline responsible for narrative phenomena in different fields of research. In an age in which even economists and politicians have for some time realized the crucial importance of storytelling and narratives to the modern economy, to organizations and to the world of politics,15 it certainly seems high time that narrative theorists should also begin to leave behind the boundaries that structuralist narratologists seem so keen to retain.

A second explanation is that narratology, due to its foundation in literary studies, has its roots in the theory of fictional narrative. To prevent the suspicion that I am once more, as David Darby (2003: 429) put it, attempting “to close the barn door long, long after a number of purebred […] horses have escaped”, I will deal with both expansionist claims in a twostep procedure, initially considering the actual state of affairs in literary studies on the one hand and in the humanities on the other, thereafter examining the arguments for the proposed changes in the two fields of research. Narratology and Literary Studies Apart from some leftover structuralists, almost every narratologist in current literary studies seems to be hooked by the idea of a fundamental renewal of narrative theory. Anyone who wants to come to terms with the wide-ranging and important cultural and ideological functions that narratives and storytelling actually fulfil in our present-day media culture needs to take into account the contexts on which contextualist approaches to narrative are currently focusing. “A Survey of the Theory, History, and New Areas of Research of Feminist Narratology”.

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